ROSIE THE RIVETER

TRANSCRIPT OF AN INTERVIEW WITH EDITH VARGA


 

April 10, 2006

83:42 minutes

Interviewed by Ann Kelsey

Filmed by Michael OíHagan

For the County College of Morris, Learning Resource Center

Randolph, New Jersey

Rosie the Riveter Project

Transcribed by Jardee Transcription, Tucson, Arizona

 

 

 


PAGE 1


Kelsey:  When and where were you born and raised?

Varga:  I was born in Wharton and I grew up and lived in a house, the first house in Jefferson Township outside of
           Wharton, on West Dewey Avenue.

Kelsey:  Tell me a little bit about your family background.  What did your parents do?

Varga:  My father worked for the Lackawanna Railroad.  He was a ticket agent.  First he was a substitute, so he served  

           in stations from New York, Hoboken, to Dover.  My mother was a homemaker.

Kelsey:  Did you have any brothers and sisters?

Varga:  No, Iím an only child.

Kelsey:  Did any other family members live with you?

Varga:  No.

Kelsey:  So would you say you lived in a small town?

Varga:  Very small.  I lived outside a very small town.  My grandmother lived two doors away with my grandfather and my
           Aunt Emma.  There were not many houses on the street at that time.

 


PAGE 2


Kelsey:  Describe the schools you attended.

Varga:  Well, I walked to Wharton schools.  I was an adult before I realized I was a tuition student who

           was never told I was a tuition student, nor offered a school bus ride.

Kelsey:  And whatís a tuition student?

Varga:  Well, Jefferson Township was where we paid our taxes, so Iím sure that they had to pay money to
           Wharton for me to go there.

Kelsey:  And where did you go to high school?

Varga:  Wharton High School.

Kelsey:  What kind of classes did you take in high school?

Varga:  I took college preparatory classes.

Kelsey:  So you did want to go to college?

Varga:  I did.  I took typing.  I was told that there was no money to send me to college.  At that time, there was no

           guidance department or anyone to help me, so I went to work.  We were offered a part-time job at Picatinny
           Arsenal, I think when I was seventeen, in March.

Kelsey:  What year did you graduate from high school?

Varga:  In 1944.

Kelsey:  Did your family belong to any organizations or a church or social club?

Varga:  I really donít think so.  I went to church.  I went with my grandparents and my aunt, to the Luxemburg

           Presbyterian Church.  Did I belong to any clubs?  No.

Kelsey:  And what about your parents?

Varga:  No.

 


PAGE 3


Kelsey:  Was your father in a union?

Varga:  He probably had to join a union at the end of his work life, yes.

Kelsey:  How were you and your family affected by the Depression?

Varga:  Well, my father always had a job.  I think he worked twenty-seven years, seven days a

           week.  Thatís a lot of work.  We were poor.  I had one pair of shoes.  My winter coat was a snow jacket.  People

           around me were the same or even more poor.  You really didnít think about it.

Kelsey:  Do you think because of the Depression that was why you werenít able to go to college?

Varga:  I wouldnít imagine that my father would have ever had enough money to send me to college,

           but I wasnít guided to scholarships.  Iím currently the chairman of a scholarship committee, so I always think

          about that, how important that is.

Kelsey:  So you stayed in your same house, you never had to leave your home or anything like that?

Varga:  Until I married, I stayed there.

Kelsey:  Did your family have to take in any other relatives or family members because they had lost their

             homes or their jobs?

Varga:  No.

Kelsey:  All right.  And you would characterize your level as ďpoor.Ē

Varga:  Poor, but with an employed father, yes. 

Kelsey:  When World War II started, were you still in school?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  And what grade were you in?

 


PAGE 4


Varga:  Well, when did the war start, 1941?  So I would have been in my freshman year of high school.

Kelsey:  And you were not married at the start of the war?

Varga:  No.

Kelsey:  Did you find a boyfriend or a fiancť at some point during the war years?

Varga:  No, it was after the war.

Kelsey:  So you met your husband after the war was over.  Did you have any friends or family who got married during the

             war?

Varga:  No.  Well, remember, when you said the beginning of the war, I would have been, what, thirteen, fourteen years

           old.  Letís say a year or so after we were out of high school, one of my friends married, but no one

           my age was getting married at that timeóI donít know whether it would be legal!  (laughs)

Kelsey:  You had a friend who got married a few years into the war.  What was that wedding like?

Varga:  Well, the war was over by then.  It was a simple wedding, [she] was dressed in a beautiful gown, and two of us

           were her bridesmaids, and we had a small reception afterwards.  Simple.  Weddings werenít big productions   

            then.

Kelsey:  Now, during the war, did you continue to live in Wharton?

Varga:  Yes, I was going to school, with a Wharton mailing address, right.

Kelsey:  And you went to work at Picatinny?

Varga:  I did.  One of the great things was the bus to Picatinny stopped at my door, right in front of my house. 

           Everything else was a mile away.  I donít think we paid money to ride that bus, either.  Free transportation, to my

           knowledge.  I never remember paying at all.

 


PAGE 5


Kelsey:  Do you have any idea who would have funded the transportation?

Varga:  No, I donít remember any discussion about it, but my mother was already working at the

           arsenal then, and so we both got on the bus.

Kelsey:  Were you still in high school when you went to work there?

Varga:  I worked on Saturdays, yes.

Kelsey:  What made you decide to go to work?

Varga:  It was an opportunity.  I had no money, I had nothing.  It was an interesting offer.

Kelsey:  How did you find out about the job?

Varga:  I think they must have told us in high school, and offered us employment.  And then when I graduated, I had the

           option of training to become a draftswoman, so I took advantage of that.  Going back to the bus, the interesting  
           thing about the bus, as I recall it, I was the last to get on, and I either sat on a board between the two front seats,
           with a freestanding kerosene heater in front of me, or if that was taken, I stood in the stairwell by the kerosene
           heater.  Thatís different!

Kelsey:  And how many people did the bus hold, about?  How many people squeezed onto the bus?

Varga:  I donít know, probably forty or so.  It was packed.

Kelsey:  Do you remember seeing any posters or newsreels or hearing on the radio that was encouraging particularly

             women to work in the factories, or to join the military once the war was in full swing?

 


PAGE 6


Varga:  I donít truly remember.  There was no televisionóat least not available to meóat that time.  So our news of the

           war came through the papers and the news reports at the movies.  My mother went to work for the first time since
           she was married.

Kelsey:  Did she mention to you, did you talk about why she had decided to go to work?

Varga:  Perhaps we didnít all talk as intimately as families do today.  It was an opportunity for her to have money of her

            own, because a womanís role was not the same at that time:  long days of work, and very little money left over. 

            So I guess she took advantage of the opportunity, the same as I did.

Kelsey:  So would you say it gave both of you an opportunity to be more independent?

Varga:  Yes.  I guess we didnít think about it, but as we worked, we did become more independent.

Kelsey:  Do you remember hearing or seeing references at that time about Rosie the Riveter?

Varga:  Yes, I do.  I can remember my mother bought an outfit for me.  It was like a brown flannel shirt and brown
            slacks.  And slacks were just coming in at that time.  And I can remember people calling me Rosie the Riveter
            when I wore it.

Kelsey:  Did you think of yourself as a Rosie?

Varga:  No, I didnít.

Kelsey:  And why didnít you?

Varga:  I donít know.  We didnít refer to ourselves as Rosies.  We werenít riveting or doing manual laboróI wasnít.  My

           mother worked on the line.

Kelsey:  Do you think she thought of herself as a Rosie?

 


PAGE 7


Varga:  Iím not sure, I truly am not.

Kelsey:  Do you think she was aware of the advertising and the Rosie the Riveter icon that was developed during the war
             to encourage women to work?

Varga:  Iím not sure, truly.

Kelsey:  Now Iím going to ask you some questions that describe what you did at work.

Varga:  All right.

Kelsey:  What kind of training were you given?

Varga:  Very little, as I remember.  I went in as a clerk typist.  I really donít know what happened, but what appeared to

           have happened was that someone hastily took the gaugesóI worked in gauge designóand put them, or dumped

           them, in the building next door.  And so my job was to typeóand there I got instructionótype a card, on my first

           electric typewriter that Iíd ever seen, and type these cards that would go with each gauge, so they could be put

           away, filed away, properly.

Kelsey:  And the cards stayed with the gauge?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  So that was the first job that you did.

Varga:  Thatís the first job I did.

Kelsey:  And that was while you were still in high school, working on the weekends.

Varga:  Yes, right.

Kelsey:  And then when you graduated from high school, you changed jobs?

Varga:  At a given point, after I graduated, and I was working at Picatinny, Picatinny offered to train us to be gauge

           draftsmen.  So there was an in-house training.  The previous year they had invited at leastóI donít know how      

           many schools they invited them fromóbut they had invited graduates to attend classes at Dover High School

          


PAGE 8


          and they had paid them as they were learning. And then they went to the arsenal and they were stationed in

           different spots.  We were given on-the-job training, so we were paid because we were employed.   

           And then I went to work for a checker.  A checker had about four to five people working for him or her. And we

          were put into a large drafting roomóvery, very big in my eyesówhich had big banks of fluorescent lights.  The

          light bounced off of starched linen drafting paper, which probably started our first eye problems.  So thatís where I

          went after I had finished my course.  And thatís what I was doing when the war was ended.

Kelsey:  Did you think that the training was sufficient for you to be able to do the job?

Varga:  I knew that the war effort could[nít?] depend upon me.  I did what I was told.  I did not chose to go on for a

           drafting career after that.  And one other thing, you learned to work at the arsenal, because every week you had

           to do a written report of what youíd accomplished during the week.  Do you understand?

Kelsey:  Yes, I do.

Varga:  So that you formed ideas of what work was about, and which side you were going to be on.  You couldnít be a

            goof off, and what would you say at the end?  Youíd have to manufacture what you did.

Kelsey:  And who were these reports turned in to?

Varga:  Heaven knows.  They collected them, and I donít know, but it was a procedure.

Kelsey:  Did they need to be a certain length?

Varga:  I think simply you had to summarize what you did for the week.

 


PAGE 9


Kelsey:  And you have no idea where they kept them?

Varga:  No.

Kelsey:  What did you like most about your work?

Varga:  I think thereís a sense of accomplishment in going to work and doing your job, and finishing your job.

Kelsey:  And what did you like the least?

Varga:  I donít think I disliked anything.  Perhaps you form ideas of what you want to do and what you donít want to do in

            life, at a time like that.  I never went back to work at Picatinny after the war was over and I was dismissedóbut
            some people did.

Kelsey:  So the experience that you had working as a draftsperson sort of made you feel that you wanted to pursue other

             things?

Varga:  Other things, yeah.  And it gave me the money to do it.  So I sent myself to secretarial school.

Kelsey:  What kinds of rules were you required to follow?

Varga:  The most discipline I saw was in the interview.  Howís about that?  (chuckles)  I mean, once you were inside

            there were military and civilian personnel.  With my background, I had no problems of discipline.

Kelsey:  Your background?

Varga:  Well, my upbringing in my home.  I was not a rabble-rouser or looking for trouble.  I did my job and went home. 

            In some terms, that was dull, you know.

Kelsey:  Were there security regulations that you all had to follow?

 


PAGE 10


Varga:  Yes.  I think we all had an I.D., and we went through the gate, hordes, thousands of people.  That was

            impressive, the sheer number of people.

Kelsey:  Did they tell you things like you shouldnít talk about what youíre doing there?  Or the ďloose lips sink shipsĒ sort

             of?

Varga:  I donít remember that, but I remember that my motherís letters from her own mother in Nova Scotia were all
           censored.  Each one was read.

Kelsey:  These were your motherís letters that she wrote?

Varga:  That she received from Nova Scotia.  I remember the ďlights out,Ē and I remember traveling to

            Nova Scotia on a train where one side had all the shades down.  We were all very aware how the war was

            affecting us.

Kelsey:  Did you have to wear any special clothing?

Varga:  No.  No, I did not.

Kelsey:  So you wore just your regular street clothes to work?

Varga:  Right.

Kelsey:  Did you have any kind of a coat or anything that you put over your clothing, or you just worked in yourÖ.

Varga:  No, I was sitting at a drafting table.

Kelsey:  Did working in a factory pay better than other jobs you might have taken?

Varga:  Well, I think of it as an arsenal.  I know that the pay was a lot better than if I went to work in the five-and-ten. 

            Girls did that, went to Dover and worked in one of their five-and-tens so many days a week, and on

            Saturdays.  And I was doing better than that, by working one day a week.  And when I look at it now, you could

            say that I didnít earn much money, but what I did earn was mine.

 


PAGE 11


Kelsey:  Did you feel your jobs were important?

Varga:  I feel it more now, looking back.  I think it was important.

Kelsey:  And why do you think it was?

Varga:  I think we all pulled together at that time.  The war influenced what you ate, the gas in your car, I told you about

           the lights, the press and news, the people going to war, the casualties.  So you knew it was an uncertain time.

Kelsey:  Were you ever promoted or given a raise?

Varga:  I was, but I donít seem to be able to find the papers that prove it.

Kelsey:  [Weíll take your word.]

Varga:  You believe me.

Kelsey:  Were your other coworkers, were a number of them promoted or given a raise?

Varga:  I donít think it was promotion, I think it was just an increase, a small amount of money.

Kelsey:  Were there any women supervisors or managers?

Varga:  There might have been, but I think most of them were male.  There were women in the room, but most of the

            supervisors were male.

Kelsey:  Do you remember any women [supervisors] at all?

Varga:  As supervisors, no.  In my memory I cannot.

Kelsey:  But you mentioned that you were a checker and you were checking the work ofÖ.

Varga:  Well, no, we worked under a checker, a male checker.  I spoke this morning to someone that I worked with, who

            was a draftswoman under the checker, and he would give out assignments, check our work.

 


PAGE 12


Kelsey:  And were all of the people who did that job, men?

Varga:  Well, I think.  As I say, I canít remember any women checkers, but there were men and women in the room.

Kelsey:  Were there men who were also doing the same sort of work that you were doing?

Varga:  Yes.  They were older men, tooómen who perhaps, say, werenít in the war.  Maybe they were 4-F or something.

Kelsey:  Or men who were too old, like maybe in their fifties or sixties, who would have been too old to have been drafted.

             Do you have any idea if before the war, the jobs that you and the other women were doing at Picatinny, do you

             have any idea if those were done mostly by men before the war?

Varga:  I really donít know.  I knew that the previous year a number of new high school graduates had been

           employed/trained.

Kelsey:  And what year was that?

Varga:  That would be í43.   And they went to various places in the arsenal.

Kelsey:  Do you remember if there were any cases of what we would refer to as sexual harassment?

Varga:  I knew of none.

Kelsey:  Was there a union?

Varga:  I donít know of any.  I didnít know of rights, and race discrimination, or sexual discrimination.  That all came later

           in my education.

Kelsey:  As far as you know, were men and women paid the same?

 


PAGE 13


Varga:  That Iím not sure.  You know, itís funny thing, people do not share that information, either.  I really donít know.

Kelsey:  It seems from what you said before that there were jobs that only men did.  There were jobs that both men and

             women did, but there were also some jobs that only men did.  Is that correct?

Varga:  I think so.

Kelsey:  And most of those jobs were supervisory or managerial?

Varga:  Right.  At sixteen or seventeen, I wasnít assessing that.

Kelsey:  Did you make new friends there?

Varga:  Yes.  And Iíd just been cut off from my old friendsóyou know what I mean?

Kelsey:  And how was that?

Varga:  Well, when you graduate, people do move.  Some did go to school, some went to work elsewhere.  So itís a time

           of change.

Kelsey:  So tell me about some of the friends that you made at Picatinny.

Varga:  Well, I spoke to one this morning.  I had taken her to the last Rosie event here, and we both worked for the same

           checker.  So she recently became ill, so I was calling to inquire.  She was hospitalized, so I called to inquire. 

           Other people, I was friends with twoÖ.  Letís see, Iím forgetting her name.  Mrs. Little and Gladys  were both part

           of the previous yearís training, so thatís how really know that Picatinny did make an offer to them, to train them,

           send them to school for the summer.  Mine was a shorter course, on the job.

Kelsey:  And you were trained right there?

Varga:  Right there.

 


PAGE 14


Kelsey:  They were sent toÖ.

Varga:  They were sent to Dover High School, yeah.

Kelsey:  Were the friends that you met at Picatinny, were they mostly your age?

Varga:  Yes, they were recent high school graduates, yes.

Kelsey:  And what kinds of things did you do together?

Varga:  Not too much.  (laughs)

Kelsey:  Did you see each other outside of work?

Varga:  Very little, yes.

Kelsey:  Did they live near you?

Varga:  One or two miles or more away, right, they did.  It was very important that I have a car, as timeÖ.  You know, it

            sort of took a while.

Kelsey:  And did you get a car while you were working at Picatinny?

Varga:  No.  No, I saved my money so Iíd have it to learn something else.  That happened later on.  I guess I was

           nineteen or twenty before I got a car.

Kelsey:  So that was two or three years after the end of the war, before you actually had a car.

Varga:  Thatís right.

Kelsey:  Describe to meóyou talked about it a little bitóbut a little more about what a day was like, when you would go

             to work, and then what did you do?

Varga:  Well, you were given assignments.  Probably I was the low man on the totem pole in my groupóyou know, with

            the least experience.  There were gauges that were used in the field.  So you either got an assignment from your

 


PAGE 15


            checker, or knowing that you were going to have to fill out a report once a week, you got pencil drawings from

            the back file room and you inked them in.  Thatís the truth.

Kelsey:  And what kind of assignments did the checkers give you?

Varga:  Well, to draw a gauge.  I canít remember what height of experience I reached, so I couldnít describe exactly what

            I did all those years ago.

Kelsey:  Did you do the drawings freehand?

Varga:  Well, you had a slide rule, a big ruler, and you had instruments.  No, you didnít draw them freehand.

Kelsey:  What kind of instruments did you use?

Varga:  Well, we were using India ink, a pen with nibs, where you would draw on the straight line.

Kelsey:  Did you use any other kinds of tools other than a slide rule andÖ.

Varga:  At this point in my life, I canít tell you that.  (chuckles)  Thatís buried in my memory.

Kelsey:  About how long did it take you to draw a single gauge?

Varga:  I canít tell you that, either.  Thatís faded in my memory.

Kelsey:  Do you think that you would have done more than one a day?

Varga:  I think so.

Kelsey:  So the way it worked was sometimes the checker would have something that he would give you to do.

Varga:  Assign me, yes.

Kelsey:  And then if there wasnít anything specific that he hadÖ.

Varga:  [I] found work to do.

Kelsey:  Then you would go and find somethingÖ.

 


PAGE 16


Varga:  To do, so you werenít just sitting there.

Kelsey:  Was it sometimes difficult to find work to do?

Varga:  No.  There was a library of filings in the back of the room, of drawings.

Kelsey:  And then you would take these drawings and ink them in?

Varga:  Yes, because they were done in pencil.

Kelsey:  When you were doing one from scratch, would you make those drawings in pencil first?

Varga:  You know, I cannot remember.  (laughs)  Iím sorry.

Kelsey:  Thatís okay.

Varga:  That was a long time ago.

Kelsey:  Yeah, it was, a very long time. I think you said that you lived with your family during the war.

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  And basically the same people that you lived with while you were growing up.

Varga:  My mother and father.

Kelsey:  How did the war change your activities and routines?  You were fourteen when the war started, so you were in

             your first year of high school.  So after the war started, say, in í42, by the end of 1942, how had things changed

             for you?

Varga:  Well, I know especially after my mother went to work, there was more money.  I think all of us were poor.  Itís
           hard to explain to anyone who hasnít been there, but what you wore, what you did, your

 


PAGE 17


            shoes, what money you had to do something elseóthings were tight before the war.  So there was a little more

            money.  I think all of us started to prosper a little.

Kelsey:  So then do you feel that you were actually able to do more things after the war, because your motheróeven

            before you yourself went to workóbecause your mother was bringing in additional money into the house?

Varga:  Thatís right, yes.

Kelsey:  So what kinds of things did you doÖ.

Varga:  With my extra money?

Kelsey:  Uh-huh.

Varga:  (chuckles)  I suppose I dressed a little better.  What did I do?  Had a little more money to spend.  Once a year

           we went to Nova Scotia to see my other grandmother.  Having more money makes you more confident to do

           other things.

Kelsey:  Did you do things like go to the movies more?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  And maybe the soda fountain more?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  As the war went on, and you got a little older, did people you know start to go into the military?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  Or people you went to school with, maybe were a year or two ahead of you?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  And were they mostly the guys, or did some girls that you knew join the military?

 


PAGE 18


Varga:  No, just the fellows.

Kelsey:  Who did you socialize with in high school?

Varga:  I had two girlfriends who lived in Luxemburg  Do you know where Luxemburg is?  Itís near Route 80 in Wharton.   

           Used to be an IGA Store there, and now thereís a Food Market.  Do you know where Washington Pond is?  That

          section of  Wharton.

Kelsey:  So thatís where your friends lived?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  What kind of things did you all do?

Varga:  Itís kind of vague to me now.  Just hung out together.

Kelsey:  Were they all girls?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  When you started working at Picatinny, especially after you graduated from high school, did they have any kind
             of organized social or recreational activities with the military or the civilians?

Varga:  Not that I know of.  Thereís always, I suppose, been an officers' club there, but no, not for the civilians.  It was

           serious business, and thatís what it wasóbusiness.

Kelsey:  Okay, we were talking about basically life during the war, what it was like.  What did you do when you were by

             yourself?

Varga:  You mean at home or whatever?

Kelsey:  Yeah.

 


PAGE 19


Varga:  Well, I liked to read.  I ended up being a spoiled, waited-upon, only child.  I had to help my mother, who was now

            working in and outside the house.  I wouldnít say I lived a very exciting life, but shopped, movies, did things,
            friends.

Kelsey:  Where did you go, to go to the movies and shopping?

Varga:  Well, we went to the movies at the Playhouse Theater.  There were two theaters in Dover, Playhouse and the

           Baker Theater.  And shopping, we had a railroad pass because my father worked for the railroad, so we shopped

           in Paterson or Newark and not in Doverófor shopping, thatís clothing shopping.

Kelsey:  And what were some of the stores that were in Paterson [when you went there?]?

Varga:  Hm.  You know I canít think of the name of it, but eventually I remember I bought my wedding dress in Paterson

           Macyís, Bambergerís.  There was a big huge store, Broad and Market Streets in Newark, and thatís all I can

           remember.

Kelsey:  Did you ever shop in Morristown?

Varga:  No.  I donít know why.  Later I worked in Morristown, but no, not at that time.

Kelsey:  Did you ever go to any social events in Newark?

Varga:  No, I donít think I did.

Kelsey:  Do you remember there being tea dances?

Varga:  I donít remember those.

Kelsey:  Some people have mentioned that, in Newark especially, at the hotels.  How did you feel about the war?  What
             did you think about?  You were pretty young when it started, but can you remember what you thought about it,
             did it feel like it was something that was really personally

 


PAGE 20


             impacting you at that point, or was it something that was more like going on someplace else, and you had

             nothing to do with?

Varga:  I think I looked at it with a childís eyes, compared to the way I look on it today.  At the end of movies you were

           shown graphic films, especially when they discovered the prison campsóyou know, it was revealed.

Kelsey:  That was at the end of the war?

Varga:  That was at the end of the war.  So it was just a very horrible thing, and when we were looking at what I had

            saved, I didnít think of the horror of my working at a place that produced ammunition that was made to really kill,

            deter others.  Since it didnít happen here, it was a war you heard about, saw pictures of, read about, but itís

            nothing like living in an occupied, active war.

Kelsey:  Thatís actually an interesting point that you just made about the work that you were doing, and what was being

             produced there.

Varga:  Yes, especially with that booklet I showed you, where it showed actually what Picatinny Arsenal produced in

            armament.  I donít think they would give everyone one of those booklets today.  (laughs)  I mean, it just seems a

            little cock sure way to handle it.

Kelsey:  So you and the other people who were working there, how did you feel, did you really think about what it was

             that you were making?

Varga:  As I say, I donít thinkÖ.  Each person would have to answer that for themselves, but if theyíre like me, I was

           more of a child then.  Itís like when they dropped the bomb over Hiroshima.  Was it Doolittleís men?  Whoever

           flew, it was a big thing, and it was ďRah! Rah! America!Ē

 


PAGE 21


Kelsey:  That was early in the war.

Varga:  Well, it was when we were trying to have Japan stop.

Kelsey:  Oh, the nuclear bomb, the atomic bomb.

Varga:  Yes.  Well, I certainly feel the horror of it all now, in a way that I didnít then.  Do you know?  We really didnít

            know anything aboutówe the peopleódidnít really understand the true impact of that bomb.  So you can look

            [at] that life through a childís eyes, or an adultís eyes, or an older personís eyes.  So thatís what I have to say

            about that.

Kelsey:  Your parents, who were older, did they ever talk about the war in a way that would maybe give a different point of

             view?

Varga:  Well, I donít know.  My father had been a soldier stationed in Pershingís headquarters in France in World War I. 
            I told you my husband was a soldier, but I hadnít met him at that time.  He went to war after he graduated from
            high school.  So I didnít hear his views until later on.  But war is hell.  I mean, especially if itís in your own land,
            right?  It isnít like two basketball teams.  You know what I mean?  So what does one know of war intimately,
            until it happens.

Kelsey:  Did you have close friends or family members who were fighting?

Varga:  Yes, I had a cousin in the war, yesóthe South Pacific.

Kelsey:  Was he in the marines, navy?

Varga:  He was in the navy, yes.  He was a local Wharton fellow who just passed away a few years ago.

Kelsey:  Do you remember what battles he was in?

 


PAGE 22


Varga:  No, I donít.  He told us, and we should have recorded it.  Iím not sure that it was ever recorded.

Kelsey:  Were any of your friends or family killed or wounded?

Varga:  No.

Kelsey:  So they all came home?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  Did they behave differently?  Did you notice that when they came home, whether they acted differently from

             what you remembered?

Varga:  I donít think they acted too differently.

Kelsey:  How did you communicate with people you knew who were away at war?

Varga:  Write letters.

Kelsey:  So it was all letter writing?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  You mentioned that letters from your grandmother to your mother, from Canada, were censored.

Varga:  One time she must have mentioned whether a ship was sunk off the coast.  Now, this is an older womanóIím

           saying thisóshe was older at the timeóand she was censured.  You know, I donít know, they must have notified

           her so that she wouldnít speak of anything that was happening off the coast, or internally in Nova Scotia

Kelsey:  So someone actually contacted her and said she shouldnít have done that?

Varga:  Yes.

 


PAGE 23


Kelsey:  Did they black out something in the letter, or did the letter just never get delivered?

Varga:  No, I donít remember the details, but I remember that someone actually sat and read the letters, and that she

           was censured.

Kelsey:  Did you get ďVĒ mail?

Varga:  Yeah.

Kelsey:  And what did that look like?

Varga:  I really canít remember now.

Kelsey:  It was real small, they microfilmed it, right?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  Iíve seen some of my parents ďVĒ mail.  Did you ever get letters, can you remember getting letters where you
             could tell that they had censored information out of them?

Varga:  I donít remember that.

OíHagan:  What is ďVĒ mail?  Maybe other people might not know, because I donít.

Kelsey:  ďVĒ mail was victory mail.  Is that what it stood for?  And they would take a letter and they

             would microfilm it, so that it was reduced in size, so a regular sheet of paper would be reduced to like a quarter

             of that size.  And then thatís what would actually get mailed.  And I guess it was to conserve paper.  Was that

             the reason for it?

Varga:  Or to indicate that it was censored.  It really was, right?

Kelsey:  Yeah, that somebody else had actually opened it and read it.

             Did you have a victory garden?

 


PAGE 24


Varga:  Well, we didnít think of it as a victory garden, but my parents always gardened:  string beans, carrots, tomatoes,
            potatoes, scallions, peaches.  My grandmother had a huge apple orchard.  But I mean, these were things that
            they always didóthey didnít do it because there was a war on.

Kelsey:  Were there any conservation measures or recycling that you did, that was totally because of the war, that you

             hadnít done before?

Varga:  Well, first of all, there was no garbage collection.  So there wasnít recycling, to my knowledge.  What did we do

            with our newspapers?  Perhaps burned them, because you could still burnóand your garbage.  My father would

            go out and dig a hole.  He had considerable property, so he buried cans.  Thatís all I remember.

Kelsey:  What about things like rubber products?

Varga:  Well, maybe weíd put those where there was a collection for certain things: aluminum and rubber and other

           scarce items that could be used.

Kelsey:  So that you saved things for those collections.  And had you done that before the war started?

Varga:  I donít know.  And I wasnít the woman of the house, and that wasnít my job, so I donít remember.  Iím passing on

            that.  Now today we conserve, we recycle, we mulch.

Kelsey:  Did you ever worry, or were there people around you that worried that the Allies might not win the war?

Varga:  Perhaps my father, who read widely, did.  I did not.  I did not worry.  I was naÔve.

Kelsey:  So you just figured everything would turn out okay.

Varga:  I didnít look at it fatalistically, as if we were going to lose.

 


PAGE 25


Kelsey:  But your father did?

Varga:  Iíd say he may have, because he was a man whoíd been in war, and he was more widely read than I, deeper

           thinker.

Kelsey:  At the end of the war, you mentioned seeing in the newsreels about the concentration camps.  How did youó

             and you were older thenóhow did you feel when you saw those?

Varga:  I thought it was unbelievable.  Last summer we went to Auschwitz just beyond belief.  You know, when you read

           the stories, or hear the storiesÖ.  And there are people around who do tell the stories locally.

Kelsey:  Do you remember if you had any idea while the war was going on, that these kinds of things were happening?

Varga:  No way.

Kelsey:  Were there any refugees that you came into contact withónot necessarily Jewish people, but any refugees

            from Europe that might have come to this area?

Varga:  No, I had no idea.

Kelsey:  What did patriotism mean to you?

Varga:  Probably saluting the flag, going to war if you were called, voting.  Thatís probably it.

Kelsey:  And thatís what it meant to you then.

Varga:  Yeah.

Kelsey:  And how did you show your patriotism?

Varga:  Well, I didnít go to war, I saluted the flag, I voted, I paid my taxes, I didnít cause myself to be arrested, I obeyed

           laws.

 


PAGE 26


Kelsey:  Did you feel that going to work at Picatinny was a way of showing patriotism?

Varga:  At the time, probably not.  I wasnít an adult, thinking that deeply.

Kelsey:  Actually, thatís interesting.  If you had been given the choice of two jobs, one at Picatinny and one in an office

             that paid basically the same amount of money at that time, which one do you think you would have picked?

Varga:  Well, it was convenient when I was in high school to have a part-time job.  I had the time, and I could use the

           money.  And I didnít know what the arsenal consisted of until I got there.  You just donít walk in the arsenal.  It

           would have been interesting to make a decision on that, but it didnít happen.  (chuckles)

Kelsey:  And you said you didnít really know what was going on in there until you actually went in.

Varga:  Itís a little city, or a medium-sized city.

Kelsey:  When you went in and started working, what did you think about it?

Varga:  Initially we were handled by a military officer.  This man demanded that we say ďsir,Ē and I had never said ďsirĒ to

           anyone in my entire life.  And everyone had to say ďsirĒ on every sentence we spoke.  The medical exam, taking

           my blood was like an experiment to find a vein.  I mean, I still remember it to this day.  That was sort of a rude

          way to start your first job.  But we all handled it.  I was amazed at how big the arsenal was, the vast numbers of

          people there.  Then they brought in people from, I donít know, Haiti, I believe, at the one end of the

          block of buildings I was in.  They brought people in from every backwoods farmóthey were on my bus ópeople

          who hadnít worked, people from Pennsylvania.  There were a lot of people there.  This wasnítÖ.  Like today we

 


PAGE 27


          have many people from many countries, many stages of life, income, from many countries, speaking many

          languages.  So itís a different world.  In my town of Wharton, I donít know if there was one black person.  They

          had a lot of Hungarians.  At that time I didnít know I would marry a Hungarian (chuckles) and go to see Hungary,

          too.  So life was different.  My excursions took me to my grandmother in Canada, so we lived a very simple narrow

          life.

Kelsey:  They brought in all of these peopleÖ.

Varga:  From different places to work in the arsenal.

Kelsey:  Did you say Haiti?

Varga:  I think they were from Haiti.

Kelsey:  The island of Haiti?

Varga:  I think so.

Kelsey:  And then they brought people in from farms all over Northern New JerseyÖ.

Varga:  And Pennsylvania.

Kelsey:  Eastern Pennsylvania.

Varga:  New York City.

Kelsey:  And New York City.  Now, did these people stay here, or did they go back and forth?

Varga:  Well, certainly the ones on the farm from Northwest New Jersey, went back home.

Kelsey:  Every day?

Varga:  Yes, because my bus was bringing them in and taking them home.  Iím really not sure

           where they all lived.  Iím sure some of them must have commuted, because the area wasnítÖ. 

 


PAGE 28


           Victory Gardens may have been built to house government workers, but not to the extent that Picatinny needed. 

           Itís a good question, I donít know.

Kelsey:  Do you rememberÖ.  You said that the population was not as diverse at all, as it is now, and that you donít

             even recall even one black in Wharton.  But these people that they were bringing in from all these

             different placesÖ.

Varga:  Was a mixture.

Kelsey:  Was that group more diverse?

Varga:  Yeah.

Kelsey:  Were there blacks in that group?

Varga:  I think.  But my memory back that far probably was very self-centered:  I saw what concerned me, and I wasnít

           intimidated by all these people, just the sheer numbers.  I wasnít used to walking with so many people around.  It

           was like a cityóespecially going in and coming out.  I mean, big turnover.

Kelsey:  Going in and out of the gate?

Varga:  Yes.  Yeah, going to your bus.

Kelsey:  I guess they had shift work, right?

Varga:  They must have.  But my mother and I worked regular hours, but I do not know the answers to shift [work].  One
            would think that they worked three shifts, but Iím not sure.

Kelsey:  But you never worked anything other than the day shift?

Varga:  Yeah, I had the day shift, right.

Kelsey:  Everyone who was hired, even part-time, had to have a physical?

 


PAGE 29


Varga:  Their physical, yeah.  It wasnít a thorough physical.  And everyone passed.  Yes, everyone passed, do you

           understand?  I mean, itís only after youíve gone through this, becauseÖ.  Well, I certainly went to a doctor, but I

           never had the experience I had there that day with the nurse.  And I had never gone through an interview before,

           especially with a military man.  So perhaps heís still talking about his experiences, I donít know.

Kelsey:  So tell me a little bit more about that interview.

Varga:  Well, it was just like a rude awakening.  Innocently I was passing by, never having been treated that way, and

           that was his manner.

Kelsey:  How did he treat you?

Varga:  Well, he was very demanding.  I had not met anyone like him before.  And then we all passed.  I mean, I think

           thatís funny.

Kelsey:  Do you remember what kind of questions he asked?

Varga:  No.

Kelsey:  Or did he just tell you things?

Varga:  His manner was very demanding.  My school and family life had not prepared me for that man.  So

           maybe thatís part of the awakening, right?  Lifeís not all like your mother's and your teachersí lives.

Kelsey:  When you went to the physical, were you lined up like you see the pictures of the guys going [unclear]?

Varga:  Having inoculations?

Kelsey:  Yeah.

 


PAGE 30


Varga:  Well, we werenít having any inoculations.  I canít really tell you that, I donít know.  Itís faded in my mind.

Kelsey:  They took your blood pressure?

Varga:  I donít think they took your blood pressureóthey took your blood.  Thatís why I wasóthey were probing, I was

           very thin at that time, from walking to and from school.

Kelsey:  How many miles was that?

Varga:  Itís only two a day, but if I could only walk two miles a day, Iíd be a much thinner person.  (chuckles)

Kelsey:  What was your most memorable experience at Picatinny?

Varga:  Hm.  I think there wasnít any highlight or low bad experience.  I entered my first work experience of my life for

           which I got paid.  And the discipline, especially when school was over and now Iím working eight hours a day,

           every day.  It was just a smooth time.  And the war came, and I think I took a month off, maybe two months, and

           then I went to secretarial school in the fall.

Kelsey:  This was after the war?

Varga:  After the war.

Kelsey:  Do you remember anything particularly funny or humorous that happened while you were working at Picatinny?

Varga:  I really donít.

Kelsey:  How did you feel when the war ended?

 


PAGE 31


Varga:  Well, we were all happy.  Thatís what we hadÖ.  I mean, I wasnít planning to stay there for my life.  We were

           happy the war was over, and I accepted that my job was over, and that Iíd move on.

Kelsey:  Was it understood before the war ended that at whatever point it did end, your job would be over?  Was that

             expressly stated?

Varga:  I donít remember it being stated, but I accepted it.  I must have understood it, because I accepted it with ease. 

           Some people I know were called back.  And Iím happy that I wasnít.  Howís that?

Kelsey:  And why were you happy that you werenít?

Varga:  Because I went on to other things.  I mean, I live in a community where Iím surrounded by Picatinny employees

           and retirees.  My husband was quite shocked when everyone retired at fifty-five from Picatinny, and he worked ítil

           sixty-four.  Different rules to different games.

Kelsey:  Where were you on V-E Day?

Varga:  I can remember being at my grandmother's, thatís the only thing that sticks in my mind, and she gave me
           something because it was the end of the warósome little thing she picked up from around the house.  Thatís all I
           remember.

Varga:  And what about V-J Day?

Varga:  I donít remember where I was then.

OíHagan:  Was it the grandmother from Nova Scotia?

Varga:  No.  My [paternal] grandmother lived on the same street I did, two doors away.  So I used to go see her every

           day.

 


PAGE 32


Kelsey:  Once you had been laid off, or your job at Picatinny had been terminated, then you said you took a couple

             months off.

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  And what did you do?

Varga:  I took a trip to Nova Scotia I enrolled in school and started in September.

Kelsey:  September ofÖ.

Varga:  What would it be, í45, right?  The war with Japan ended in í45, correct?

Kelsey:  Yeah.  What school did you enroll in?

Varga:  I went to Summit Secretarial School.

Kelsey:  And that was in Summit?

Varga:  Right.

Kelsey:  And how long were you in school?

Varga:  Probably nine months.  Then I went to work in Madison for the principal of the high school.

Kelsey:  At Madison High School?

Varga:  Yeah.

Kelsey:  How did you feel about your job as a secretary, versus the jobs that you had done at Picatinny?

Varga:  Well, I liked it better.  But now I was an experienced person, having worked.  I mean, donít you form your

            opinions as you go along?

Kelsey:  Were you paid the same, better, worse?

Varga:  I was paid better.

Kelsey:  Than what you had been making at Picatinny?

 


PAGE 33


Varga:  Right.  And strangely enough, when I married, I made more than my husband.  When he came out of service, he
           went to Parks College, which was a part of St. Louis University, and he was an aeronautical engineer.  And in
           í49, there were no jobs for aeronautical engineers, so he had a hard time getting a job.  He was the first college
           graduate in his family.  He eventually became a mechanical engineer, got his masterís.

Kelsey:  Where did you meet him?

Varga:  I met him at Egbertís, square dancing.  Did you ever hear of Egbertís?

Kelsey:  No, donít think so.  Where was that?

Varga:  Well, itís somewhere outside of Denville.  Itís on a lake, and it was called Egbertís.

Kelsey:  And he had moved to New Jersey from St. Louis?

Varga:  No, his parents lived in Dover, and he went to school in St.Louis.

Kelsey:  So he was originally from this area?

Varga:  Yeah.

Kelsey:  You just had never encountered each other.

Varga:  Right.

Kelsey:  Getting back to your job, did you feel that you had more responsibility?

Varga:  You mean as a secretary?

Kelsey:  Uh-huh.

Varga:  I worked for a very unusual man.  There were two secretaries, and I was really a year older than, say,
           high school seniors.  It was nice, I liked it.

Kelsey:  And how long did you stay there?

 


PAGE 34


Varga:  I stayed there seven years and eight months.  And by then my husband had his masterís degree, and I was
           pregnant with my first son.

Kelsey:  And thatís when you quit?

Varga:  Thatís when I quit.

Kelsey:  And at any time after you left Picatinny, did you ever consider not finding another job?

Varga:  In those days, the man worked.  We all lived on one salary, and you made do, and the mothers stayed home

            with the children.  There were some exceptions, but basically thatís how it was.

Kelsey:  But before you were married, when you left Picatinny and then [unclear], did it ever occur to you at that point
             that you wouldnít be retraining or looking for another job?

Varga:  It never occurred to me, no.  I knew Iíd work somewhere.  Itís just that I really didnít have any skills, except

            typing, drafting.  I wasnít going to save the world with my drafting.  I knew that.  So I had to move on.

Kelsey:  Was it because you did have typing skills thatís why you focused on going to secretarial school?

Varga:  Well now that Iíve had time to think about this through the years, there was no guidance when we were in

            school.  I did well in school.  I wasnít guided to scholarships or how I could do it.  Thatís why I really enjoy

            working with the scholarship committee.  Iíve done it about thirteen years, so I know what Iím doing, and Iím

 


PAGE 35


           giving the assist that I wish I had been given.  I try to keep up with changes and opportunities.  So some people

           did learn how they could do it, and they did go to school or college from Whartonóbut I wasnít one of those

           people.

Kelsey:  But being a secretary was something that you knew that you could do, it was a job, an avenue that was open to

             you.

Varga:  Thatís an avenue I tried, yeah.

Kelsey:  And ended up liking it.

Varga:  Right.

Kelsey:  Better than being a draftsman.

Varga:  Right.

Kelsey:  What year did you meet your husband?

Varga:  In 1949.

Kelsey:  So youíd been working for a couple of years then at that time.

Varga:  Uh-huh.

Kelsey:  And when did you get married?

Varga:  In 1951.

Kelsey:  And then you had your first childÖ.

Varga:  In í54.

Kelsey:  And how many children do you have?

Varga:  Three.

Kelsey:  Through all weíve talked about, weíve talked about how when you were growing up you felt you were poor, you

             had very little, you really had to make do, and you all needed to work.

Varga:  Go without, yes.

 


PAGE 36


Kelsey:  And go without.

Varga:  But we werenít aloneóa lot of people were doing that.

Kelsey:  With your family and your three children, how did your experience growing up make you feel about

             their growing up?

Varga:  Well, I think my generation of women at that time were staying home and using their skills, stretching the dollar,

            learning how to sew, making it all work, staying home with the children.  I went back to work when my daughter

            was, I donít know, about eight years old.  She had to be fifteen minutes home alone.  And I took a job in Dover

            High School, part-time.  And I liked it, I liked working.  It was a good experience, especially now Iíd had a little

            experience and I had motherhood, and it was good to get back to work.

Kelsey:  Did the economic insecurities that you had when you were growing upódid you feel insecure with your

             children?  Were you worried that there might not be enough for them, the way there wasnít enough for you?

Varga:  No.  We started saving before we had children, for the children and their education.  A good man, he was a

           financial planner, and the skills, we both knew how to save, go without.  ďGood enough will doĒ is the motto you

           grew up with.  So would I do it differently?  I think Iíd be a different mother if I had another chance, but itís not

           gonna happen.

Kelsey:  So the skills that you had to learn growing up during the Depression, you used those skills to

             make things better for your own family.

Varga:  Right.  Thereís nothing like living through it and going through it, to learn how to do it.  Sometimes you wonder if

 


PAGE 37


            the current generation, how they will do.  You know, when you meet adversity, if you donít have those skills, itís

            going to be very hard.

Kelsey:  So do you think that the war changed your life and the lives of your family and friends more than the Depression

            did, or less?

Varga:  Well, certainly all the men who went to war and took advantage of the G.I. Bill had their lives

           changed and improved.  War did bring better things to them if they survived to be able to go through and go to

           school.  I guess going through the Depression was something like a war for some people.  My father always had

           a job, my husband's father did not always have a job.  So I only know how it worked for me, and different people

           take different approaches.  You must know that, with your friends.

Kelsey:  So for you personally, do you think the war changed your life?

Varga:  I think it did, yes.

Kelsey:  And how did it change it?

Varga:  How did it change it?  Well, weíll never know if there were no war, what I would have done differently.  Certainly,

           as I told you, the war gave us more money to do more things with, to have more opportunities.  And as I worked,

           maybe I became a different person.

Kelsey:  In what way?

Varga:  Well, I was taught to be meek and mild and to keep my opinions to myself, be seen and not heard.  And Iím

           more aggressive (laughs) than you can imagine.  I mean, I have changed, so thatís my experience.

Kelsey:  And do you think that was a good thing for you?

 


PAGE 38


Varga:  Definitely, yes.

Kelsey:  You mentioned the G.I. Bill.  Did your husband take advantage of the G.I. Bill?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  Do you think that the education that he was able to get made a difference in the economic situation of your

             family?

Varga:  Yeah.

Kelsey:  So when you said that was a positive result of the war, that was what you meant?

Varga:  Yeah.

Kelsey:  After the war, when you went to secretarial school, and then you went to work at Madison High School, where

            were you living?  Did you continue to live with your parents?

Varga:  When we married, my husbandís parents moved to Somerville, and we moved into their house two weeks later.

Kelsey:  Their house in Dover?

Varga:  Dover.  And then we lived there for twelve years.  We had a five-year plan.  We were going to have a

           new house in five years.  And in twelve years, I wasnít getting itchy, and I still was at home.  And by then, by

           twelve years, we had three children.  Is that right?  Ginny was born in 1964.  No, Ginny came after we moved. 

           So there was a development on the top of our hill, and we bought one of those houses.  By the time we bought it,

           we owned a houseówe were buying the new houseóa lot, and we had the other house.  So we had too much
           going on, financially, at one time.

Kelsey:  You had how many housesótwo houses and a lot?

 


PAGE 39


Varga:  I guess we had bought the house on Prospect Street.  Then we bought the [lot] we were going to build our dream

           house on.  In the meantime, this development opened, and so we bought a house in the development.  But it all

           worked out, and we got rid of that one house and lot, and we have our house that we live in.

Kelsey:  Did you live with your parents until you got married?

Varga:  Yes.

Kelsey:  So you commuted from Wharton to Madison on the train?

Varga:  Yes.  Well, once I got a car, I drove, so I drove.

Kelsey:  How long did it take you to save for a car, or to get a car?

Varga:  Well, I had to go through school, and then I worked about three years.

Kelsey:  So by the late fortiesÖ.

Varga:  Yes, I bought the car.

Kelsey:  What kind of a car?

Varga:  It was a Chevy, it was very nice.  Your first car is very important.

Kelsey:  Yes, it is, I remember.

             Did the work that you did during the war change your feelings about what kind of work women should or

             could do, and what women could do outside the home?

Varga:  I think when I really came to be very pro-woman was here in the County College of Morris.  When I came here, I

           had some friends who were having hard times, and this was mecca for women who were having hard times.  They

           could use the daycare center, they could go to school here, tap into the grants, console each other.  It was just

           teeming with women like that.  And I became very pro-woman.

 


PAGE 40


Kelsey:  And when was that?

Varga:  Well, I came here, letís seeÖ.  I came here about 1973, part-time.  But when did I work here?  Yeah.  So I must

            have come here to work.  First I worked as a temp here, then I worked for Humanities, and I worked here from

            about í73-í74 to 1978.  And I went to school, so I talked to a lot of these women on the job and at night.  It was

            very interesting.  You must have some of this experienceóhad great conversations.

Kelsey:  You mentioned daycare as a real positive [unclear].

Varga:  It was a great thing, yeah.

Kelsey:  Do you rememberóof course you wouldnít have had any need for itówhen you were at Picatinny, do you

             remember if there were any kind of arrangements for women who were working and had children?

Varga:  For daycare?  No, I donít remember.  Well, I donít remember if, in 1944, if the average woman who had a child

           had a car, either.  You know?  In other words, you werenít seeing people on the bus with children in their arms.  I

           donít know that, really donít.

Kelsey:  Yeah, youíre right, at that point in time, not that many people had carsóit was the gasoline and the tires and all

             that.

Varga:  They may have had a sitter at their home.

Kelsey:  But you donít recall, all of these people that were coming into Picatinny, and most of them were coming on
             some sort of transportation that was being provided, or public transportation, but you donít recall seeing any
             small children?

 


PAGE 41


Varga:  No.  And see, if they could bring in buses, they could cut down on all the cars that were coming in.  But I wasnít

            thinking of all that when I was that age.

Kelsey:  Is there one thought about your wartime experience that you would want to share with future generations?

Varga:  Thatís quite a question.  (pause)  I guess you can look back at a time when all this happened to you.  I would

            think that you have a collection of experiences, and maybe your deeper thoughts come about the whole thing

            later.  I donít have a thought for future generations, except avoid war, if there were ever to be a perfect worldóIím

            not sure there will ever be.

Kelsey:  Is there anything else youíd like to add?

Varga:  No, thatís it, thank you.

Kelsey:  Thank you very much.

Varga:  Youíre welcome.

[END OF INTERVIEW]


 

INDEX

 

Auschwitz............................................. See Concentration Camps

Censorship............................................ 22

Church

     Luxemburg Presbyterian.................... 2

Concentration Camps............................. 25

Conservation Measures.......................... 24

County College of Morris........................ 39, 40

Denville................................................. 33

Depression........................................... 3, 36, 37

Dewey Avenue...................................... 1

Dover................................................... 1, 8, 10, 14, 19, 33, 36, 38

Egbertís............................................... 33

Family................................................. 1, 2, 3, 4, 16, 21, 22, 24, 29, 33, 36, 37, 38

     Aunt Emma..................................... 1

     Daughter......................................... 36, 38

     Father............................................. 1, 3, 16, 19, 21, 24, 25, 37

     Grandfather..................................... 1

     Grandmother................................... 1, 17, 22, 24, 27, 31

     Husband......................................... 4, 21, 31, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38

     Mother............................................ 1, 5, 6, 10, 16, 17, 19, 22, 28, 29, 36

     Son................................................ 34

Friends................................................ 4, 13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 22, 37, 39

     Gladys........................................... 13

     Mrs. Little....................................... 13

G.I. Bill............................................... 37, 38

Haiti................................................... 26

Hiroshima........................................... 21

Japan................................................. 21, 32

Jefferson Township.............................. 1, 2

Lackawanna....................................... See Transportation, Railroad

Madison............................................. 32, 38, 39

Military, Draft...................................... 12

Morristown......................................... 19

New York City.................................... 27

Newark.............................................. 19

Nova Scotia....................................... 10, 17, 22, 31, 32

Patriotism.......................................... 25, 26

Paterson............................................ 19

Pennsylvania...................................... 27

Pershing............................................ 21

Picatinny Arsenal............................... 2, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 18, 20, 26, 28, 30, 31, 32, 34, 40

Rosie the Riveter................................ 1, 6, 7

Scholarship Committee....................... 3, 34

Somerville.......................................... 38

Summit.............................................. 32

Transportation

     Bus.............................................. 4, 5, 27, 28

     Car.............................................. 11, 14, 39, 40, 41

     Railroad........................................ 1, 19

Union................................................. 3, 12

V-E Day............................................. 31

Victory Garden................................... 24

Victory GardensÖÖÖÖÖÖÖ.....Ö...28

Victory Mail....................................... 23

Wharton............................................ 1, 2, 4, 18, 22, 27, 28, 35, 39

     Luxemburg................................... 18

Washington Pond.............................. 18

 

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